Blow room is the initial stage in spinning process. Where the fiber is opened, cleaned, mixed and evened.
Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibers to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing.
The ring spinning machine is used to draft the roving and impart strength to the fibers by inserting twist.
In short staple spinning the term is only applied to the process at a draw frame. In drawing slivers are elongated when passing through a group of pairs rollers, each elongating of several slivers to make them strong and uniform.
The process of twisting is an indispensable means of improving certain yarn properties and satisfying textile requirement that can not fulfiled by single yarns. the method of twisting two or more single yarn is called doubling or folding or ply twisting. the "fibers" twisted & spn together with particular twist & specific method, can be a usual definition of yarn.
“Two for One Twister” (TFO) The method of twisting two or more single yarns is called doubling or twisting. “Two for One Twister” means, in one revolution of the spindle two turns of twist will be inserted in the yarn. The yarn will be unwound from a stationary feed package, guided through twisting spindle, twisted and finally wound on the take up package. TFO have following advantages:
1. Production of long lengths of knot free yarn
2. Higher productivity
3. Fewer pre & post – twisting operations
4. Low manpower.
Combing is a process which is introduced into the spinning of finer and high quality yarns from cotton. The carded materials (sliver) contain certain amount of short fibres, neps, fine kitty and leaf particles. Short fibres are a hindrance to spinning of finer counts where the number of fibre in the cross section of the yarn is less. The short fibres cause thick and uneven places in the yarn length and the yarn looks hairy. Apart from this, very short fibres do not contribute any thing to yarn strength.
After spinning the yarn through various processes in the preparatory process and ring frame department, it is ready to be formed into a regular shaped package called cone to make it suitable for shipment for end use.
During the winding process, the following objectives are met:
a) Scanning and removing the faults,
b) Splicing of broken / cut yarn, and
c)Making of big packages as per customer requirement
As single yarn will be used in major fabrics, doubling yarn will be preferred in terry towels. The purpose of producing doubled yarn is to improve yarn uniformity, abrasion resistance, tenacity and flexural endurance. This is also an essential process for the production of balanced yarn. It is a two-stage process.
A) Doubling / Plying
High speed spinning machines generate more friction thus giving additional heat to the yarn and as a result of such heat transfer the yarn moisture content is vaporized. Rising speeds in spinning result in decreased yarn quality for other processes and it is well known that dry yarns have worse properties. For quality reasons it is absolutely important to have even distribution of this recuperated moisture throughout the entire yarn package. Only the vacuum technology provides the conditions for the required moisture regain.